US Military Ranks – Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines and Coast Guard

US military ranks are crucial since they define structure which everyone is obliged to follow. It is a protocol for every armed service to come up with their own rank structure which may start from E1 to E9. US military ranks may vary from service to service. However, these all just follow the same pay structure which is initiated and given by the Department of Defense.  US military ranks usually depend on who has the most authority to make decisions. This will be the definition of responsibility assigned to one. In order for this rank to be obtained, one needs to own this. Points have to be accumulated in various areas.

The Importance of Ranking

US military ranks encompass many responsibilities. This is the reason why there are many people who saluted people with US military ranks. Military rank always comes with a badge of leadership. Usually, ranked officials will have to be responsible with the personnel, equipment, and even the mission. All of these change as one’s rank increase. Many people should not always confuse rank with pay grades like E-1, W-2 and O-5. Most of the time, pay grades are one of administrative classifications which are used to standardize compensation across the various services. E-1 means enlisted. 1 on the other hand indicates the pay grade which comes with the position. Other pay categories include W which is for warrant officers, O is for commissioned officers. There are times when two ranks may have enlisted pay grades. This is how the payment of US military ranks.

Ranking of Various Armed Forces

From time to time, people will stumble upon updated database about armed forces be it around the world. These regional charts are crucial for the reason that they give off evaluations of quality and quantity of each armed forces in a particular region. As for the quantity of each combat, various open sources have been used to derive such. Usually, quality is being determined depending upon the historical performance of the person. All of these armed forces are not equal. Not in anyway. This is the reason why US military ranks is far different from that of the other. This inequality can actually be seen through numbers. They are expressed in quantity. This is the reason why understanding the difference between US military ranks has been made possible. The numerical value most especially the value of total strength can be determined through calculation. It is crucial to differentiate what floats and what does not. For instant, aircraft carriers and as well as tank divisions are all unique instruments which are used for destruction. The two may cost the same. However, a carrier is not possible to march on Moscow. Tank division cannot make it to the Atlantic.

These are the individualities this equipment has. This is the reason behind enlisting land forces capabilities only. Truth is that these are not separated. For ground combat, naval forces are capable of supporting such. For the sustenance of naval forces, they can make use of tank divisions. In assigning values, the destructive effect plays a vital role. This has been modified though by considering flexibility and at the same time, mobility. Tank divisions are known for their moving ability most especially in wide areas. On the other hand, most air defense forces lack on this for the reason that they are quite limited in moving. It was observed that the numbers of weapons and men are just equally accurate these days. When it comes to the estimation of quality factors, there are times when subjectivity may come across.

In indicating US military ranks, it is of vital matter to know that naval power is actually hard to compare with land power. Land power enables one to defend oneself against his opponent. There are nations out there not so dependent with seaborne trades, naval power in this is less crucial. There are industrial nations though. What comes with this are third world countries that face periodic food scarcity. In such case, the loss of sea trade can be felt badly. It can be a big, serious problem.

It was the collapse of the Soviet Union way back 1991 which resulted to the second largest fleet in the world. It has been decaying though ever since the 1990s. It was during these times when Russia lost about 80 percent of its naval power. It was considered as the second largest fleet in the world. However, U.S Navy these days have over half the naval combat power around the world. They also have various kinds of ships which are all capable of being sent in any part of the world. United States and Britain have the most dominant naval power across the world.

During the end of the Cold War, many navies shrunk. The same also happened with the U.S navy. It was observed though those most European nations were affected the most. They were the ones reduced the most. As for the Pacific, many countries have been expanding their fleets. These are Japan, China and as well as South Korea. India is also included in this list. Despite this though, the naval forces of the United States in the pacific are still the major players.

European Nations these days are still overpowered by Russia. There has been a decline with the Russian military way back in 1990s. However, this does not affect the powerful combat force of Europe. The reason for this is that European chose to cut their military spending. Russia in this sense is not that much of a threat in Europe. This was never the same because Russia used to be such during the Cold War.

Learning such history is important because it is through such that U.S military ranks will be determined appropriately. What come with these officials are responsibilities that they should be qualified for. To be aware of these is a sign of being a responsible citizen. All of these people would take charge in protecting one’s nation.

Military Dog Tags

Whenever one speaks of military dog tags, people have a common notion that they have something to do with what people in the military wear around their neck. This was somehow an important form of identification during the war. However, things changed. Today, they are not just for military. Military dog tags can be used in various ways, one of which is as a great gift. People coming from different age brackets use military dog tags. These tags are being used to show information of their choice. There are also other people out there who use these military dog tags as a sign of medical alert. Children would use them as best friend charms and necklaces. There are those on the other hand who use military dog tags as luggage tags. These tags are very useful in identifying one’s belongings.

Today, the thing is the use of customized military dog tags. The only difference and thing about this customized tag is the fact that one can actually put anything he wants to in there. The information one likes to print would depend upon his choice of course. Among the many information military dog tags have are name, social security or identification number, service branch, date of birth and the person whom the unit belongs.

For those who want to customize their military dog tags, they can just put anything they want on the said tag. Putting one’s address or phone number can also be done. People who are to use military dog tags as ID tags or novelty gifts for a child must be very careful when it comes to the information they are to put on the tags. Putting the wrong information might mislead somebody, most especially if it is read by the wrong people. Owners must be careful in this sense.

Personalized military dog tags are also used as souvenirs. This is the reason why it can be used as a great gift. These personalized military dog tags are also lightweight. They can be grabbed easily. Printing military dog tags is also affordable. This can be an option for people who are in a tight budget. Kids actually wear and trade these military dog tags. This makes the tags a famous novelty in the younger crowds. These tags are made of brass, stainless steel and aluminum. The information one has is engraved or embossed on the tag. This tag is accompanied with a beaded chain. The chain can be selected depending upon one’s choice. There are also various styles and colors for this. These designs are not around before. Choosing military dog tags has never been fun!

More Ideas

These military tags have captured the attention of the crowd ever since they have been introduced to the world of fashion. The newest trend as mentioned above is the personalized military tag. Young or old, rich or poor, these tags are suited for all. There are many benefits of having such tag. These tags made the expression of one’s individuality possible. There are hip concepts people can consider using. Owning quality and stylish tags without paying too much is possible these days. There are a wide number of stores in the market where acquiring custom tags can be done. This gives owners the chance to choose their own format and design.

Individuals who are to go for personalized dog tags will be overwhelmed with the diversity of creative concepts one can be entitled to. Innovation has been made over the past couple of years. One can choose from unlimited letters and lines. Just recently, finding web army tag outlets are not difficult. These outlets can offer endless words which come with unlimited lines too. Looking for a shop that offers this kind of service must be done for free. For those who want to make impact into their whole look, favoring silencer color is the thing. Showing one’s style is also possible by choosing his favorite color. Purchasing should not be that hard for there are many online stores on the web. These stores even offer silencers without any cost. Taking advantage of this fact should be done by people who are in a tight budget.

Personalized tags should be there to function very well. These tags should be used to convey one’s style and personality. They can also be used for easy, safety and leisure. For those who love their cameras so much, they can attach their tag there. This can also be done with purse, binoculars among others. People who travel a lot can use this tag in finding their luggage, briefcase of the like.

Making sure that one’s pet is safe can be made possible through these tags. They can give owners peace of mind. They can also be used as a powerful too in promoting something. There are those who use this for parties and charity works. This includes the brand of one’s organization. Once they are sold, the profit people will gain can be used to boost funds. As for tags which contain the company’s name, they should be given out for free. To attract many customers, making the tags attractive should be exerted an effort. Building crew energy is achieved by people during reunions, parties, competitions and contests.

As for medical tags, people are easily placed depending on their health-related condition because of it.

Overall, it can be said that the World Wide Web can help a lot in creating unique army dog tag. This is desirable these days considering the fact that everyone is too busy to personally go to shops. In this case, making a keen research is the key towards finding a reliable shop.

Buyers can choose from U.S Army, U.S Marine Corps, U.S Navy and U.S Air Force. With all of these choices, there is surely one that will fit one’s personality. Whatever one’s choice is, in the end, the goal in here is to show-off the person’s identity. Choosing carefully should be done. Accessorizing has never been made as creative as this!

Calculate Your Pay With Military Retirement Calculator

Military retirement calculator can be one of those useful tools found online. This tool works in such a way that it helps individuals from the military to calculate the amount of money they will receive as they retire. This is actually the reason why it is called military retirement calculator. As how it works, the amount would be based from the years one spent in service. Usually, it is also an applicable retirement plan for their case. Understanding how a military retirement calculator works is not that difficult. For as long as one knows how to surf the net, then this should not even give them a hard time.

How does a Military Calculator Work?

Military retirement calculator usually works in accordance to one’s retirement plan. This is only for those military personnel. As for these personnel, there are usually three plans being provided to them. This is based on the time that they were able to be a part of the service. Even though there are three plans, people should know that these plans are not that different from each other. The only difference these plans have is the way in which the calculation is done. The initial premium also lies in this. Among the different plans include Redux, Final Pay and High Three Year Average. These are the plans in which the military retirement calculator works. It does not matter what plan is applicable for a person, calculating it is always possible. The exact amount one will be able to get once he retires can be known with the use of a military retirement calculator.

In tabbing one’s finances, a military retirement calculator is needed. Not everyone is actually willing to entrust his or her finances to professionals. There are even those who do not have a clue on how to deal with their expenses. Despite the fact that professionals can be of great help because they are experienced, it is still fulfilling for one to be involved when it comes to his retirement finances. There are people out there who want to plan out in advance before they retired, by having a military retirement calculator, military personnel will not have a hard time on this anymore. At least, one will have an idea when it comes to the exact amount of money that he will be able to receive from his retirement. This makes planning even way easier. A military retirement calculator can be found in just a few minutes from the internet.

Learn about Reserve Calculators

This calculator is related to military retirement calculator. However, the only difference is that this calculator is being used to find out what will happen just in case personnel died. It is true that in military, retirement is being paid over time. It is not being disbursed all at once only when the benefits of the survivors need to be paid over their family members. This is settled in a lump sum amount. There are still people there who see their military retirement just as extra money. Maybe the reason for this is because they prepare a budget coming from other fund sources. This can actually be a good way to obtain some extra funds. This fund can also be used in emergency purposes.

How to Use a Military Retirement Calculator

Military retirement calculator may vary depending upon the individual. The reason for this is because different plans are assigned to different military personnel. This may be based on date when the person joined the army. Knowing these different plans would give personnel an idea with the use of military retirement calculator.

The first plan is so called Final Pay Plan. This is applicable for those who had joined the army before September 8, 1980. This would even work for those who have been active in the service for at least twenty years. As for this plan, the basic things that need to be input in the military retirement calculator includes the age of the individual, the individual’s active number of years at the army alongside with his base pay. Once all of these have been encoded, the military retirement calculator will display the amount the individual will receive after. There are times when the military retirement calculator considers one’s tax rate, inflation and even dozens of other things that is somehow limited to this plan alone.

Aside from the above mentioned, the other plan is called High-3 Year Average plan. Unlike the aforementioned, this plan is perfect for those people who joined the army after September 8, 1980. Among the basic variables that have to be entered in the military retirement calculator are the age of the individual, number of active years in the service, the base pay but for this case, the same with that of the Final Pay plan.

The final plan is termed the Redux plan. This is for those people who joined the army just after August 1, 1986. There is a one-time fixed premium for this plan. The said fixed amount is $30,000. This amount is put into the military retirement calculator.

Planning for one’s future is possible with a military retirement calculator. At least, retired military personnel, or incoming retirees will have an idea on how much to expect from their near-approaching retirement. This is one of the most important things that people should work on. This will give people an idea about their real standing. In order to make use of different military retirement calculators, just visit the website which is being administered and run by the secretary of defense.

Working should secure one. Making use of the said calculator is a new effective strategy towards wise financial management. At least, this is a good way for one to know the benefits that he will get in the near terms of his retirement. Planning early should be done. This will be successful with the assistance of a financial advisor. It would be important to provide the said advisor with one’s resume. Just include important information in this like current savings balance, annual return and so on.

How To Apply For Military Star Card and Its Benefits

Military Star Card helps its clients save money without having to pay any annual fees. Usually, it comes with a very low interest rate. Before one is charged of a finance charge, he will be given a 25-day grace period first. This is one of the reasons why Military Star Card has been patronized by many. This card is also useful for the reason that it can be utilized at all AAFES, Coast Guard exchanges and as well as Marine Corps. Applying for Military Star Card should not be that hard. There are just a couple of things that customers need to remember.

How to Handle Military Star Card :

Handling and managing a Military Star Card should not be that hard if customers and clients are to follow the below mentioned points.

  • It is important that clients save all their receipts and charges.
  • Remember to open your monthly billing statement. Be very vigilant in doing this. Comparing charges will be easier if these statements are saved.
  • For instance, questionable items occur, it would be better to contact Military Star Card immediately. There are times when this happens. So, customers should be ware.
  • Clients who are to change their billing address should notify Military Star Card as soon as they can. If not, the billing statement will be sent to the wrong people.
  • Pay bills on time. This should be automatic already. For instance, you cannot make payment because of whatever reason, it would be necessary for you to contact Military Star Card. Do not fail to do this. You do not want to deal with a bulk of payment of course.
  • To make matters easy, register for online statements. This will enable you to view your Military Star Card account. You can also set-up your automatic payments in this. This is where your payment is automatically deducted from your bank account.
  • In case there is a need to dispute a charge, submit it through writing within the period of 60 days. This should be done after you had received your statement from Military Star Card.

The above mentioned should be remembered by those who are to take Military Star Card. Just in case questions arise, it would be better to call their customer service.

Applying for Military Star Card :

In order to apply, or even qualify for Master Star Card, one has to be on duty yet. He must still be active. If not, he has to be retired or reserved in order to qualify for Master Star Card. Veterans may also have a shot for as long as they are of 100% disability. In order to process this, prepare your Department of Defense ID. For instance, you no longer have the ID with you, a Social Security card ID will do. Once you had secured this vital requirement, bring it to the Military Exchange store. Then, that is the time when you can ask for an application form. This can be derived from the Customer Service. To make it even more convenient, you can get the form online.

As mentioned, clients can apply online. The said card can also be used online for clients who are to make use of catalog purchases. It can be utilized for AAFES, Navy, Marine Corps and even Coast Guard Exchanges. What is good about Military Star Card is the fact that it actually offers the same benefits like that of a bank card or even credit cards. The only difference is that Military Star Card does not have any annual fee being charged. It also comes with a very low interest rate. There is a reasonable grace period for those who are in need before they are to be given a finance charge.

In order to apply, go on and sign up for Military Star Card. Doing this may mean going to you exchange customer service department. You will have to present your military ID there. Once your application has been approved, there will be a card that will be issued to you. You can use this temporarily.

There are many ways in which a Military Star Card can be used. This can be used in paying bills online. Just go to the website of Military Star Card. Then after, log in on their website. There is this icon which says “Member Services”…. Click that icon. Then after, click on the account information that will be seen there. You can always check your account if you would want to. You can call them.

Just remember the above mentioned and you are good to go. This card gives purchasing a new look. It can actually make buying even easier.

How to Settle Bills?

Settling bills is made easy too. This can be done online. To do this, one needs to go to the shop called My Exchange which can be found on their website. After, click the Credit Services tab. This can be found on the top of the webpage. Once the client is on the tab already, there is this icon that says Returning Customers log in. This will ask for the client’s username and as well as password. The pay will also be added in this. For those who are not familiar with this website yet, it would be of great help to get assistance from the First Time customers. There is a registration tab there. Clients would just need to input their information. Then after, they would have to click the icon saying Register Now.

Why apply?

Having a Military Star Card can be very beneficial for a number of reasons.

  • There are no annual fees.
  • Get 10% off during your first day of purchasing.
  • Make use of 25-days grace period if you are in the midst of settling the account.
  • Low interest rate can be expected, to be specific, 10.24% rate is given.
  • During the deployment on military activation, lower interest rate is given.
  • You will have an access to exclusive promotions which are only given to restricted cardholders.

If you feel like you can deal with the mentioned qualifications, terms, conditions, apply for a Military Star Card now!

Military Pay Chart – Basic Pay Scale in USA Military

In United States the basic military pay is calculated on the basis of the service years and grades. The increment of the pay is done on the basis of the cumulative services in every branches of the military force at various times some services are not allowed to count. The grade and rank for payment is calculated as per the official date.

For those people who take entry and serve themselves on active duty by not taking any break in the services, the date of pay for them is the date of their entry in the service actively or inactively. If you take any break in the services then the time period of the break of your service is not taken. The office that you are working in will be responsible to provide your date for basic pay, service date for active federal military, service date for commissioned federal military and various other dates as well. These depends upon the particular individual’s service nature.

The chart shows the Military basic pay, which displays the monthly basis pay. This pay is distributed among the members by every first and fifteenth day of the month. These pay will be distributed before if the first and fifteenth day comes on some weekends or any national holiday, the charts are available for both active as well as reserve areas. This chart is also available for Navy, Air Force, Marines, Coast Guard, Army and National Guard.

Summary from Basic Military Pay Chart (from 2010-2013):

•    In 2010 the Military Basic Pay Chart reflects a rise in payment of about 3.4%.
•    In 2011 the Military Basic Pay Chart reflects a rise in payment of about 1.4%.
•    In 2012 the Military Basic Pay Chart reflects a rise in payment of 1.6%.
•    In 2013 the Military Basic Pay Chart reflects a rise in payment of about 1.7%.
•    2014 reflects a pay rise of 1.0% which will be on the basis of the budget proposal of the President.


Military Pay Chart  

Chart Archive of the Military Basic Pay:

1.    The Military Basic Pay as per the percentage of increment is given in the below years. Corresponding to the rise percentage each particular chart will contain its relevant news. The persons who have the right to declare new legislation are the Congress and the President as it is important to make necessary changes in the pay of military. Or else the Title 37 of the code of United States, how the calculation of military pay will be done was dictated in that code since 1962 in September, but later that means Title 37 is read as “ all the members that are eligible will be provided with an increment in the military basic pay of a month as per this section and this increment will be the percentage that we get when we round off to the 1/10 of a percentage. By this the employment Cost Index of the year prior to the coming year will be more than the second year of the coming calendar year.

2.     The effective rise in military basic pay of 1 July, 2000 is more that the approved year i.e. 1 January, 2000 which an increment of 4.8% is.

3.    There was a targeted increment for the enlisted personnel, whose grades are from E-5 through E-7 of 1 July, 2001.

4.    There is an additional increment of 4.6% for different effective grades by 1 April 2007

5.    Longevity is added for those who has 38.34 and 30 years and these where marked as the most enlisted seniors and pay grade officers.

6.    Currently this pay chart was lastly updated on September 4, 2013.

Allowances provided by the Military:

Various allowances are also provided in the Military field, which itself can be a very good amount of military pay. There are provided a wide range of allowances, most of the allowances in them are without any taxes and need various requirements. These requirements include marital status, pay grade and location etc.

Basic Housing Allowance  - BAH Basic Housing Allowance are provided for compensation to houses, houses are provided as per the paygrade, status of dependency and the zip code. Pay is provided for the housing when quarters are not allotted and when they are provided with some temporary residencies. You can get the details by viewing the Continental Bah calculator of United States or by viewing Overseas Housing Allowance calculator.

Basic Allowance for Subsistence (BAS) – Basic Allowance Subsistence includes on the member and it does not include the spouse or family members or the cost of food. As the price of food changes the BAS also changes as per dictated by the Department of Agriculture of United States. For enlisted members of Military the BAS monthly rate is drawn as $352.27 and for officers in Military it was drawn to be $242.60 as by 1 January, 2013. The pay for food is required to pay by themselves for the service members drawing the BAS, even it is been given by government.

Allowance for living: Cost of Living Allowance  are also provided, whis=ch is been provided if there is an increase in the living standards. Cost of Living Allowance is provided as cash so that the members can handle the high living standards of the society. This allowance is not provided in those areas where the cost of living standard is low, that means where the expenses is less than average expense required to live in the United States. To receive Cost of Living Allowance the service member should be assigned to some particular area to live.

  •    You can take a look on the COLA calculator to know the rate of Cost of Living Allowances in the Continental United States.
  •    You can also check the Overseas Location’s rate of COLA which includes Alaska and Hawaii.

Clothing Allowance are also there – Clothing Allowance are received by the Airmen, Marines, Soldiers, Coast Guardsmen and Sailors. Clothing Allowance is provided to them so that they can pay for their uniform and various other cost of clothing. You can even view the Clothing Allowance rate online.

Allowance for Family Separation - All pay grades, receive $250.00 as Family Separation Allowance. When a family separation gets forced in your family then you receive the compensation of FSA. The members who serve in the United States as well as those who serve outside the United States receive FSA.

Military Pay Chart

Military Time Chart

The times are based on the 24 hour clock, it is a time zone method where the day is considered to be according to midnight and the day is divided into 24 hours. The time notation commonly used in the world is the 24 hour tome zone. When we use the military time or the 24 hour time notation every day begins with midnight which is 00:00. 23:59 is the last minute of the day which is just a minute to the next day to begin i.e. for midnight. At times 24:00 is considered as the end time of the particular day. At times, time duration may show 16:00 to 24:00 which means it refers to 4:00 pm to 12:00 midnight. You can also take some other example of the 12 hour time zone suppose currently the time is 10:15 am then this time corresponds to the military time i.e. 10:15. Suppose, according to a 12 hour time zone the time is 2:30 pm then its corresponding military timing will be 14:30.

The military timing is mainly used by the government sectors, hospitals, military, public transportation, emergency services etc. Military language is slightly different, 08:00 in military language is called as “zero eight hundred” or “oh eight hundred”. When some person in the military is writing some time then they will write the timings as 0854 without any colons apart from writing the civilian time i.e. 08:54. A “Z” is designated at the end of the time zone of military with the Greenwich Mean time which is also a Coordinated Universal time zone and it is written as 0854Z. J is the designation for the local time and it is written as 0854J and “R” is used to designate eastern time zone and is written as 0854R..

Military time is read as per the 24 hour timings. It is very overwhelming that AM and Pm are not there. It is in the format of xx:xx. The military time chart’s best part is that there is no change in minutes and seconds, the hour is just needed to be figured out.

The starting twelve hours of the day are very simple because there is no need of conversion to know the timing. There is no need to convert the time while reaching 12 noon, in AM and PM we call it 12:00 pm.

The second half is also not that difficult to find out it is also quite easy. You just need to remember and perform some calculations. You are required to drop one and then two is to be subtracted from the available military time.

One of the examples is given below:

If the military time is13:00 then drop the one i.e. 3-2 which is equal to 1 and thus it is 1pm.
When you enter into the 2’s, you are just required to do the same, if it is 2200 then take one and subtract perform 2-2 i.e. 10:00pm.

The time chart is given below:

Military Time

Civilian Time


1:00 am


2:00 am


3:00 am


4:00 am


5:00 am


6:00 am


7:00 am


8:00 am


9:00 am


10:00 am


11:00 am


12:00 pm


1:00 pm


2:00 pm


3:00 pm


4:00 pm


5:00 pm


6:00 pm


7:00 pm


8:00 pm


9:00 pm


10:00 pm


11:00 pm

2400 or 0000

12:00 am

In military time no colons re used, military times never use colons like civilian times. One o clock is called as “Thirteen hundred hours” which is meant as 1300 and we use zero six thirty for 0630. Sometimes O- Dark 30 can also be heard, which is meant to be 30 minutes before daylight.

O-clock is never used in military time hence you will never hear o-clock unless overseas are heard and this is typically done through the British and foreign Service group.

Requirement of military time:

You come across certain cases where you set your alarm at 5 pm incase of 5 am and you keep oversleeping because of such accidents. Military always stays away from such risks, so military timings use 24 hour chart and make sure that no such accidents occur because of such am and pm.

How Time Zones are figured out?

Military time zones are also called as Zullu Time. The entire world is broken into the 24 hour time zone and am and pm are simply assigned for each time zone. The military completely depends on various communication provided within shipping, training and deployment etc., so that they are required to coordinate with personnel as well as various bases which are located out of the United States.

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is used so as confusions can be avoided, these timings are also known as Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) time.

Personally as reference military use local time. When they say “ you need to report to the duty at 0700” then it means that at 7:00 AM you are needed to be at work. If it says “The Commander needs to see you at 1400 hrs,” that refers that means you are required to be at Commander’s office by 2:00 PM i.e. the local time.The military considers the Daylight savings time when it uses the local time when we recognize the military location by state and country.

When matters related to operation is considered the military is required to mostly coordinate by the location of base and personnel. So that these confusions can be avoided, military uses the Greenwich, England time zone which is known as the Greenwich Mean time i.e. GMT. In military this time is known as Zullu time zone and the suffix of Zullu is attached to the time zone i.e. Z.

For example, there may be military messages like “the ship may cross the operation area by 1300Z.” this means ship would be arriving in the AOO at 1:00PM as per the Greenwhich, England timings.